Brisbane Rainforest Action & Information Network


Typical species and successional stages in complex notophyll vine forest of the Border Ranges

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A1 Pioneer Phase Species 
Solanum spp. 
Senecio spp. 
Urtica spp. 
Eupatorium spp. 
Ageratum spp. 
Physalis spp 
Rubus spp. 
A1 Herbaceous annuals (including weeds) or short lived perennials (1-3yrs) of small size
A2 Pioneer Phase Species 
Solanum mauritianum Wild tobacco 
Duboisia myoporoides Duboisia 
Macaranga tanarius Macaranga 
Omalanthus populifolius Bleeding heart 
Trema aspera Poison peach 
Mallotus philippensis Red kamala
A2 short-lived soft-wooded perennials (5-15 yrs), 4-8m high. Produce large numbers of effectively dispersed seeds with long seed viability. Completely intolerant of shade. Not usually found in the primary forest.
B Early Secondary Species 
Acronychia spp. Acronychia 
Euodia micrococca White euodia 
Polyscias murrayi Pencil cedar 
Polyscias elegans Celerywood 
Commersonia bartramia Brown kurrajong 
Acacia melanoxylon Blackwood 
Dendrocnide photinophylla Shiny-lvd stinging tree 
Neolitsea dealbata White bolly gum 
Pentaceras australis Bastard crow’s ash 
Alphitonia excelsa Red ash 
Rhodomyrtus psidioides Native guava 
Geijera salicifolia Brush wilga
Perennial trees growing to 10-25m high. Very fast growing, and live for 15-50 yrs. Regularly produce large numbers of well-dispersed seeds. Seed viability is sufficiently long to bridge the time between successive seedlings. Intolerant of shade. Most of these species are found in the primary forest (exceptions being Acacia melanoxylon, Alphitonia excelsa and Commersonia bartramia).
C Late Secondary Species 
Diploglottis cunninghamiana Large-lvd tamarind 
Synoum glandulosum Scentless rosewood 
Flindersia spp. Ash species 
Halfordia kendack Saffron heart 
Ailanthus triphysa  White bean 
Melia azedarach White cedar 
Brachychiton acerifolius Flame tree 
Agathis robusta Kauri pine 
Araucaria cunninghamiiHoop pine 
 
Intermediate in most characteristics between groups B and D.
D Mature Phase Species 
Argyrodendron spp. Booyongs 
Sloanea woolsii Carabeen 
Elaeocarpus spp. Quandongs 
Beilschmiedia spp. Walnuts 
Syzygium spp. Lillypillies 
Cryptocarya spp. Laurels 
Geissois benthamii Red carabeen 
Pseudoweinmannia lachnocarpa Rose marara
Longest-lived (considerably longer than 100 yrs), and the slowest growing of all species. Fruiting is irregular and the seeds are usually less effectively dispersed than those of Groups A – C. Seeds have very limited viability (a few weeks). The seedlings are tolerant of shade. 


Hopkins, M.S., Kikkawa, J., Graham, A.W., Tracey, J.G., and Webb, L.J. (1976) An ecological basis for the management of rain forest. In Monroe and Stevens (1976) The Border Ranges, a land use conflict in regional perspective. Royal Society of Queensland, Brisbane. (With species names updated as far as possible).